Unit 13: DNA & Biotechnology
EI: Genetic information in DNA can be accurately copied and can be translated to make the proteins needed by the cell.
EI: The structure of DNA is ideally suited to its function.
EI: Biologists have developed techniques for artificial manipulation of DNA, cells and organisms.
DNA structure suggested a mechanism for DNA Replication.
The replication of DNA is semi-conservative and depends on complementary base pairing.
Analysis of Meselson and Stahl’s results to obtain support for the theory of semi-conservative replication of DNA.
Obtaining evidence for scientific theories: Maselson and Stahl obtained evidence for the semi-conservative replication of DNA.
Helicase unwinds the double helix and separates the two strands by breaking hydrogen bonds.
DNA replication is carried out by a complex system of enzymes.
DNA polymerase links nucleotides together to form a new strand, using the pre-existing strand as a template.
DNA polymerase can only add nucleotides to the 3' end of a primer.
DNA replication is continuous on the leading strand and discontinuous on the lagging strand.
PCR can be used to amplify small amounts of DNA.
Use of Taq DNA polymerase to produce multiple copies of DNA rapidly by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Genetic modification is carried out by gene transfer between species.
Gene transfer to bacteria with plasmids using restriction endonucleases and DNA ligase.
Clones are groups of genetically identical organisms, derived from a single original parent cell.
Animals can be cloned at the embryo into more than one group of cells.
Methods have been developed for cloning adult animals using differentiated cells.
Production of cloned embryos by somatic-cell nuclear transfer.
Many plant species and some animal species have natural methods of cloning.
Design of an experiment to assess one factor affecting the rooting of stem-cutting.
Assessing risks associated with scientific research: scientists attempt to assess the risks associated with genetically modified crops or livestock.
Assessment of the potential risks and benefits associated with genetic modification of crops.
Analysis of data on risks to monarch butterflies of Bt crops.
Vision Learning: DNA Replication
DNA Structure and Function Notes
Semiconservative Replication Notes
Meselson and Stahl Reading
DNA Replication Notes
Cells Can Replicate their DNA Precisely Reading
Major Molecular Events of Replication Reading
DNA Replication and Causes of Mutations Reading
Learn about PCR Website
Scientists Can Make Copies of a Gene through PCR
Genetic Technology Notes
TED Talk on Ethics of Bioengineering
Crashcourse Biology - Glowing Rats & Extreme Engineering
Recombinant DNA Link
Cloning Animation Video
How Cloning Works Article
Human Cloning Foundation
Discovery Channel - Human Cloning Documentary
Final Knowledge Inventory