Unit 17: From DNA to Protein
Genetic information in DNA can be accurately copied and can be translated to make the proteins needed by the cell.
Information stored in DNA is copied on mRNA.
EI: Genetic information in DNA can be accurately copied and can be translated to make the proteins needed by the cell.
2.7.U4 Transcription is the synthesis of mRNA copied from
the DNA base sequences by RNA polymerase.
7.1.U6 Some regions of DNA do not code for proteins but
have other important functions (regulators of gene
expression, introns, telomeres, genes for tRNA,
7.2.U4 Transcription occurs in a 5’ to 3’ direction (RNA
polymerase adds to the 5’ end of the free RNA
nucleotide to the 3’ end of the growing mRNA
2.7.S4 Deducing the DNA base sequence for the mRNA strand.
7.2.U3 Nucleosomes help to regulate transcription in
7.2.U1 Gene expression is regulated by proteins that bind
to specific base sequences in DNA.
7.2.A1 The promoter as an example of non-coding DNA
with a function.
7.2.U2 The environment of a cell and of an organism has an
impact on gene expression.
7.2.NOS Looking for patterns, trends and discrepancies-
there is mounting evidence that the environment
can trigger heritable changes in epigenetic factors.
7.2.S1 Analysis of changes in the DNA methylation patterns.
7.2.U5 Eukaryotic cells modify mRNA after transcription.
7.2.U6 Splicing of mRNA increases the number of different
proteins an organism can produce.
The Genetic Code
2.7.U6 The amino acid sequence of polypeptides is
determined by mRNA according to the genetic code.
2.7.U7 Codons of three bases on mRNA correspond to one
amino acid in a polypeptide.
2.7.S1 Use a table of the genetic code to deduce which
codon(s) correspond to which amino acid.
2.7.S3 Use a table of mRNA codons and their
corresponding amino acids to deduce the sequence
of amino acids coded by short mRNA strand of a
known base sequence.
2.7.A2 Production of human insulin in bacteria as an
example of the universality of the genetic code
allowing gene transfer between species.
7.3.S1 The use of molecular visualization software to
analyse the structure of eukaryotic ribosomes and a
7.3.U4 Free ribosomes synthesize proteins for use
primarily within the cell.
7.3.U5 Bound ribosomes synthesize proteins primarily for
secretion of for use in lysosomes.
7.3.S2 Identification of polysomes in an electron
Translation (RNA --> Protein)
2.7.U5 Translation is the synthesis of polypeptides on
7.3.U1 Initiation of translation involves assembly of the
components that carry out the process.
7.3.U2 Synthesis of the polypeptide involves a repeated
cycles of events.
2.7. U8 Translation depends on complementary base
pairing between codons on mRNA and anticodons
7.3.A1 tRNA-activating enzymes illustrate enzyme-substrate
specificity and role of phosphorylation.
7.3.U3 Disassembly of the components follows termination
7.3.U6 Translation can occur immediately after transcription
in prokaryotes due to the absence of a nuclear
Effect of Mutations
3.1.A1 The causes of sickle-cell anemia, including a base
substitution mutation, a change to the base
sequence of mRNA transcribed from it and a change
to the sequence of a polypeptide in hemoglobin.
Overview of Protein Synthesis Notes
Video (Crashcoures Biology)
Genetics and Genetics Timeline Article
Regulation of Gene Expression Notes
Regulation of Gene Transcription Video
"How Exercise Changes our DNA" Reading
"Leaving Your Lamarck" NPR Radio Clip
RNA Processing Notes
mRNA Processing Video (Guanine Cap / Poly A Tail)
Post-Transcriptional Regulation Video
Alternative Genome Reading
Google Doc Form
Genetic Code Notes
Initiation (step 1) Animation
Elongation (step 2) Animation
Termination (step 3) Animation
Translation in Prok. vs. Euk.
"We are All Mutants” Reading
The Persistent Problem of Cystic Fibrosis Article
Final Knowledge Inventory