Unit 18 Enzymes and Metabolism
EI: Living Organisms control their composition by complex web of chemical reactions. Metabolic reactions are regulated in response to the cell’s needs. Enzymes control the metabolism of the cell.
IB Syllabus Statements
2.1.U4 Metabolism is the web of all the enzyme-catalyzed
reactions in a cell or organism.
8.1.U1 Metabolic pathways consist of chains and cycles of
enzyme catalyzed reactions.
2.5.U1 Enzymes have an active site to which specific
2.5.U2 Enzyme catalysis involves molecular motion and the
collision of substrates with the active site.
8.1.U2 Enzymes lower the activation energy of the chemical
reactions that they catalyze.
8.1.S2 Calculating and plotting rates of reaction from raw
2.5.U3 Temperature, pH, and substrate concentration affect
the rate of activity of enzymes.
2.4.A2 Denaturation of proteins by heat or by deviation of pH
from the optimum.
2.5.U4 Enzymes are denatured.
8.1.U3 Enzyme inhibitors can be competitive or
8.1.U4 Metabolic pathways can be controlled by end-product
8.1.A1 End-product inhibition of the pathway that converts
threonine is isoleucine.
8.1.S1 Distinguishing different types of
inhibition from graphs at specified
8.1.NOS Developments in scientific research follow
improvements in computing-developments in
bioinformatics, such as the interrogation of
databases have facilitated research into metabolic
8.1.A2 Use of databases to identify potential new anti-malarial
2.5.S1 Design of experiments to test the effect of
temperature, pH, and substrate concentration on the
activity of enzymes.
2.5.S2 Experimental investigation of a factor affecting enzyme
2.5.NOS Experimental design - accurate, quantitative
measurements in enzyme experiments require
replicates to ensure reliability.
2.5.U5 Immobilized enzymes are widely used in industry.
2.5.A1 Methods of production of lactose free milk and its